History in Structure

This site is entirely user-supported. See how you can help.

Adel Reformatory

A Grade II Listed Building in Adel and Wharfedale, Leeds

We don't have any photos of this building yet. Why don't you be the first to send us one?

Upload Photo »

Approximate Location Map
Large Map »

Coordinates

Latitude: 53.8525 / 53°51'8"N

Longitude: -1.5737 / 1°34'25"W

OS Eastings: 428139

OS Northings: 439668

OS Grid: SE281396

Mapcode National: GBR KRGW.2Q

Mapcode Global: WHC95.SFSG

Entry Name: Adel Reformatory

Listing Date: 5 November 2009

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1393509

English Heritage Legacy ID: 507261

Location: Leeds, LS16

County: Leeds

Electoral Ward/Division: Adel and Wharfedale

Built-Up Area: Leeds

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): West Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: Adel St John the Baptist

Church of England Diocese: Leeds

Find accommodation in
Bramhope

Listing Text


714-1/0/10114 TILE LANE
05-NOV-09 TILE LANE
ADEL REFORMATORY

II
Reform school, approved school, community home (now disused), 1857 with later C19 and C20 additions, by William Watson Hewitson of Kitson & Hewitson, for Leeds Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders.

MATERIALS: Squared and coursed stone, slate roofs. All the windows to the outside are externally boarded; some facing onto the courtyard retain glazing.

PLAN: Two storey blocks of varying heights are arranged around a large quadrangle, with a master's house at the east corner, workshops to the north-east and north-west, dormitories to the south-east and kitchens to the south-west. Beyond the north-west range is a covered swimming pool with boiler room and changing rooms linking to the inner range. A detached chapel stands to the south.

EXTERIOR: The south-east range externally has a gable breaking forward at each end and another at the centre, each divided by four windows. The right hand end gable has a single storey, hipped roofed square bay window projecting forward, and the range extends for another window to the right with a further single storey hipped roofed square bay window.

The north-east range externally has at its east corner a 3-bay element with a central door with a window to either side and three above, which forms the eastern end of the south-east range. Abutting this is the headmaster's house which is taller and has a separate hipped roof with two ridge chimney stacks. It has five large stone mullioned and transomed windows at first floor, with two at ground floor to the left, one partly obscured by a square stone porch with a door to the side. To the right of the porch are two small windows then two mullioned windows. A lower range to the right has seven windows to each floor and a door at each end. To the right again is a taller range of three bays with scattered fenestration and dentilled eaves, and a final section, the gable end of the north-west range, with three windows to each of the two floors.

The north-west range is two storey with nine windows at first floor, some altered. The ground floor openings from the north are window, door, two windows, door, window, door, window. Beyond, a later brick wall extending from the range obscures details. The tall tapering square chimney stack for the swimming bath boiler rises from the face of the range at the far end. An inserted later brick linking block joins the southern end of the north-west range to the swimming pool that runs alongside to the north-west. The swimming pool is single storey with a pitched slate roof with four large roof lights along each side and two blocked windows in the south-west gable end.

The southern gable end of the north-west range has two windows to each floor. To the right is the main entranceway. Later stonework and double wooden gates with a rendered brick parapet over fill the gap between the north-west range and the south-west range, which projects further forward than the end of the north-west range, with a small blocked doorway in the gable end next to the main entrance. The 15 ground floor windows are arranged in variable groups, with four closely spaced around a door in the centre and three pairs with flat mullions between to the right (east). Upper floor windows are more widely spaced. Two stacks on the south-east gable end rise from half way up the roof line. To the right of this block is a further 2-window section set back and with an end ridge stack, and to the right again a final block which also forms the end of the south-east range. This has a large inserted entrance with a metal canopy to the left and a single window to the right, with three windows above. The roof is hipped to the left and to the right forms the gabled roof of the end bay of the south-east range.

The four sides of the building are set around a large open tarmac courtyard. The inner face of the south-east range has a central projecting gable, broader than that to the exterior, with scattered fenestration including a small second floor window. A porch at the right side extends into the courtyard and has a pent roof; its entrance to the right links to an open verandah extending to the right corner of the range; this has a brick base and pillars and a corrugated iron roof. There are four windows to the right of the gable at ground and first floor, and a further infilled window to the ground floor. To the left of the gable there are four first floor windows and on the ground floor a single window to each side of a cart entrance. At the left end is a single storey extension with a pitched roof that partially obscures the left hand first floor window. The first part of this, with two windows, was extant by 1893, but it was extended in the C20 to form a rear wing of the former master's house, with a change in the style of stonework and a raised roof ridge marking the later building.

The rear of the Master's house rises behind the extended building, with an external chimney stack towards the left and six windows at first floor. At the right end it is attached to a gable-ended projection from the south-east range. The single storey building in front has four windows and a narrow entrance door, and has a small flat roofed extension on its left gable end. To the left of the master's house is a lower 2-storey section with two windows to each floor. The next range to the left is stepped back and has an entrance to the right and two to the left, divided by a continuous band of stone lintels indicative of a series of former entrances. Above is a row of four windows and a further blocked window to the left, possibly a loading bay. The block to the left is slightly higher though the stone work is continuous and has a number of altered openings including a first floor loading bay. It has raised gables at each end and is joined directly to the north-west range.

The north-west range facing the courtyard appears to be a single build, of two storeys, with a first floor entrance approached from an external iron stair crossing the front of the building at the right hand end. There are four windows to the left, then a large loading door, then five windows, then another door with iron stair, then a final window. There are ground floor entrances below the staircases and a number of altered openings to the right end of the range with evidence of a removed extension. At the left end the main entrance to the courtyard is in a wall extending from the north-west range to the south-west range.

The south-west range, also a single build on its internal face, has six first floor 3-pane windows to each side of a central wooden plaque bearing a shield and the letters EMS (Eastmoor School). The ground floor has similar windows, only boarded up, with entrance doors at each end and centrally. To almost the whole length of the front is a brick based verandah with brick pillars supporting the remains of a roof structure in timber and steel, now burnt out. The verandah joins with that on the south-east range at the corner.

INTERIOR: Most of the interiors have been either stripped or damaged by fires. The master's house retains the layout of rooms, but without features of interest. The former workrooms on the ground floor of the north-east and north-west ranges survive as small rooms, some tiled and made into wash rooms. The upper floors of these ranges were also workrooms, and on the north-west range these survive as large open spaces, top-lit with skylights. Behind the north-west range are changing rooms and a boiler room for the swimming pool: the boiler survives but is disused. Beyond is the swimming pool, with a deep end towards the north-east where there are steps down, and tiled in white tiles. It is surrounded by a walkway and at the south-west end are two small cubicles, one in each corner. The roof is constructed of slender steel beams supporting a slate roof with multiple sky-lights.

The south-west range has kitchens on the ground floor extending over much of the west end, and offices to the east. The upper floor, former dormitories, are fire damaged and were not inspected. The south-east range has several large rooms to the left with quarry tiled floors and iron columns supporting the floor above. Other rooms to both ground and first floor have been internally altered. Staircases survive. The single storey extension behind the master's house housed kitchens.

SUBSIDIARY ITEM: The detached chapel has a steeply pitched roof in blue slate with horizontal bands of grey slate, ashlar dressings and stepped angle buttresses at the corners. The west gable end has a central porch with pitched roof and open arched entrance leading to the inner door. A 3-light pointed arch window is above the porch and there are two paired narrow basket arch windows to either side. The former vestry is on the north side at the east end, and has a pitched roof with a large end stack. The windows are shouldered arches and there is a date stone of 1882 on the outer gable wall. There are two paired pointed arch windows on the north side separated by stepped buttresses, and 3 similar windows on the south side. The east end has a four light pointed arch window.

The interior has 3 open trusses with metal rod tie beams. It has lost all interior features relating to its original uses, but retains climbing frames attached to the side walls relating to its later use as a gym: the interior is not of special interest.

HISTORY: Up to the mid-C19, children who committed crimes were commonly sent to adult prisons as there was no separate provision. Philanthropic Societies and private founders set up some voluntary reformatories for young people in the early C19, but it was not until the Youthful Offenders Acts of 1854 that state registered institutions were established and pre-existing private reformatories were brought under state certification. Reformatories were distinguished from Industrial Schools by taking young people who had actually committed offences, as opposed to those who were merely destitute or neglected and in danger of falling into crime. By the end of 1857 there were 47 reformatory schools in England. Most of these occupied domestic buildings such as a farmhouse with land, or a detached house and garden. At least 14 were in new premises and four are known to have been built on a quadrangular plan. By 1876 the number of schools had risen to 53, but fell to 41 by 1894. The system was superseded by the Borstal system in the early C20 and many reformatories later became approved schools.

The Adel Reformatory was founded in 1857 by the Leeds Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders, on a site deliberately chosen to be removed from the temptations of the city. William Watson Hewitson of Kitson and Hewitson, locomotive builders and general engineers, was one of the founding members and also the designer of the earliest part of the building, the south-west range. There were around 50 boys at the school in 1858. The south-east range and headmaster's house was added in 1860, when the attic floor of the initial range was converted to dormitories. The workshops of the north-east range, built by the boys in 1859, were rebuilt in 1881 after a fire, and a separate chapel to the south was added in 1882, designed by an unknown architect but apparently designed to function also as a lecture room and subsequently as a gym. Surrounding land within the grounds was cultivated for crops and garden produce. The land was bought by Leeds City Council for £3,500 in 1875, having been leased to the Society by the (unknown) owner previously.

The swimming pool beyond the north-west range was added in c.1887 and roofed in 1896. A boiler room between the north-west range and the pool was inserted in 1899 to heat the pool. It was used by community groups as well as inmates, and swimming and life-saving were taught. A report of the school from 1887 records 150 boys engaged in occupations including joinery, tailoring, shoemaking, farm work, calligraphy, building trades, cooking and blacksmithing. Many of the boys went on to join the Grimsby fishing fleet for which their swimming training was considered useful.

A group of buildings within the central courtyard, extant in 1893, was demolished by 1908, and an extension to the rear of the master's house dates to between 1934 and 1954. There has been some infill between the main buildings and the adjacent swimming pool since the 1960s.

The buildings continued in use as an approved school named Eastmoor School from 1933 and then a community home from 1972 until the mid 1990s. A number of separate houses were constructed around the core site from the 1950s onwards, but there has been little change to the C19 buildings externally. The site was leased to Leeds Metropolitan University from the late 1990s when the surrounding houses were used for student accommodation and in 1993 a secure unit for young offenders was built on part of the site, formerly open land also owned by Leeds City Council. It has been unused since c.2004 and has been marketed for housing development.

SOURCES
Brodie, A, Croom, J, Davies, J O, English Prisons (2002), 118-119, 134,165
King, P, 'Punishing assault: the transformation of attitudes in the English Courts', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol 27 (1), 43-74
Leeds City Council, Decisions List No 52, 22 - 28 December 2008
McConville, S, English Local Prisons 1860-1900 (1995), 350-361
Morrison, K, The Workhouse (1999), 46-7, 54-9, 150, 221
Tobias, J J, Nineteenth Century Crime: prevention and punishment (1972), 170-176
Wiener, M J, Reconstructing the Criminal, law and policy in England, 1830-1914 (1995), 131-141

REASONS FOR DESIGNATION
Adel Reformatory School, Leeds, founded by Leeds Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders in 1857, is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Architecture: the architecture is plain but reflects the function and purpose of the buildings
* Intactness: despite internal losses, the form and footprint of the entire complex remains largely unaltered from its C19 appearance
* Rarity: the survival of C19 reformatory buildings is extremely rare, with only 3 other listed examples and none of the size and completeness of Adel
* Historic interest: Adel Reformatory powerfully demonstrates the way that juvenile offenders were treated in the mid and late C19, from the first attempts to separate them from adult prisoners, to the increasing range of facilities offered at the school through the second half of the century
* Special features: the swimming pool is an unusual survival which further illustrates the range of skills taught in the school, and provides a physical link to the employment of boys in the Grimsby fishing industry

This text is from the original listing, and may not necessarily reflect the current setting of the building.

Reasons for Listing

Adel Reformatory School, Leeds, founded by Leeds Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders in 1857, is designated at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Architecture: the architecture is plain but reflects the function and purpose of the buildings
* Intactness: despite internal losses, the form and footprint of the entire complex remains largely unaltered from its C19 appearance
* Rarity: the survival of C19 reformatory buildings is extremely rare, with only 3 other listed examples and none of the size and completeness of Adel
* Historic interest: Adel Reformatory powerfully demonstrates the way that juvenile offenders were treated in the mid and late C19, from the first attempts to separate them from adult prisoners, to the increasing range of facilities offered at the school through the second half of the century
* Special features: the swimming pool is an unusual survival which further illustrates the range of skills taught in the school, and provides a physical link to the employment of boys in the Grimsby fishing industry

Selected Sources

Book cover links are generated automatically from the sources. They are not necessarily always correct, as book names at Amazon may not be quite the same as those used referenced in the text.

Source title links go to a search for the specified title at Amazon. Availability of the title is dependent on current publication status. You may also want to check AbeBooks, particularly for older titles.

Recommended Books

Other nearby listed buildings

BritishListedBuildings.co.uk is an independent online resource and is not associated with any government department. All government data published here is used under licence. Please do not contact BritishListedBuildings.co.uk for any queries related to any individual listed building, planning permission related to listed buildings or the listing process itself.

British Listed Buildings is a Good Stuff website.