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Sherwood and Ainslea including boundary walls and gates and excluding garage to east and outbuildings to southwest, 583 and 585 Anniesland Road, Glasgow

A Category C Listed Building in Glasgow, Glasgow

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Coordinates

Latitude: 55.8853 / 55°53'6"N

Longitude: -4.3521 / 4°21'7"W

OS Eastings: 252981

OS Northings: 668291

OS Grid: NS529682

Mapcode National: GBR 3N.27R7

Mapcode Global: WH3P1.3BVM

Entry Name: Sherwood and Ainslea including boundary walls and gates and excluding garage to east and outbuildings to southwest, 583 and 585 Anniesland Road, Glasgow

Listing Date: 10 May 1996

Last Amended: 25 January 2018

Category: C

Source: Historic Scotland

Source ID: 389853

Historic Scotland Designation Reference: LB43386

Building Class: Cultural

Location: Glasgow

County: Glasgow

Town: Glasgow

Electoral Ward: Garscadden/Scotstounhill

Traditional County: Renfrewshire

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Description

Designed by Malcolm Stark around 1887, Sherwood (No. 583) and Ainslea (No.585) Anniesland Road, are a pair of roughly symmetrical semi-detached two-storey and attic, rectangular-plan, Arts and Crafts style houses. Ainslea has an 1891 two-storey, single bay addition to the west.

The north, east and west elevations are constructed of squared, snecked and tooled sandstone at ground floor, with white predominantly painted render and timber framing at the first floor. The gableheads on the front and rear elevation are supported on timber brackets. The rear of the houses are rendered and painted white. All the timber framing is painted black. The windows are predominantly timber sash and case, and are either four over four, or single pane lowers with small-pane upper sashes. Two corbelled tall red brick chimney stacks break the eaves on the east and west gables, with a further tall stack on the rear (south) elevation. The rainwater goods are cast iron with decorative Arts and Crafts hopper heads on the down pipes. The roofs are steeply pitched with grey-green slate.

Both houses have a two-bay entrance (north) elevation, with Ainslea having an additional outer bay to the west. The entrances have panelled two-leaf timber outer doors, and partially glazed timber inner doors. Sherwood's entrance has a timber bracketed penticed slate porch, whilst Ainslea's entrance is set within a projecting stone porch, with a decorative carved frieze over the door with a stepped hoodmould. The entrances are flanked by a small leaded window. The outer bay of the front elevations is wide and has a three-light canted window with a half piended slate roof at ground floor and a tripartite window at first floor. Above, is an overhanging timber frame gablehead. Between the gables is a four-light attic dormer window.

The west elevation of Ainslea is made up of a broad gabled bay with a full-height ashlar three-light canted window rising to a gablehead. Above the ground floor window is a decorative carved panel with the date 1891 and a wrought-iron Art Nouveau window box above. The gable is timber framed and the main roof pitch extends over it to form a jerkinhead roofline, or truncated gable shape.

The rear (south) elevations are roughly symmetrical and two-bays wide. Attached to the rear is a single storey piend roofed small square-plan outbuilding contemporary to the houses. The building has non-traditional windows and provides access to the gardens. Ainslea has to its southwestern corner an additional historic glass rectangular-plan conservatory with access to the garden.

The interiors of Sherwood and Ainslea were seen in 2017 and both retain a wealth of Arts and Crafts detailing including timber and plasterwork. A variety of geometric motifs are used throughout, seen in both principal staircases fretwork, doors, fireplaces, ceilings, fanlights and glazing patterns. Timber fixtures include moulded architraves, timber panelling and overmantels. The dining rooms in each property have timber inglenook fireplaces within arched recesses with inbuilt seating, shelving and flanked by small rectangular coloured leaded glass windows with floral patterns. Sherwood's inglenook has retained its integral timber seats flanking the fireplace. The staircases have tall elaborate and decorative lights mounted onto their newel posts at ground and first floor level. There is a decorative plaster cornice with a sunflower motif in the sitting rooms of both houses. Both master bedrooms have semi-vaulted plaster relief coffered ceilings.

The boundary walls to each house are low saddleback coped stone walls. The entrance to each house has a pair of tall square-plan gatepiers, each inscribed with the name of the property, and quatrefoil iron gates. Sherwood's access drive to the northeast has a traditional decorative iron gate and latch mechanism, whilst Ainslea's access drive to the west has a replacement gate.

In accordance with Section 1 (4A) of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 the following are excluded from the listing: detached garage to the east of Sherwood (No. 583) and outbuildings to southwest of Ainslea (No. 585).

Statement of Interest

Sherwood (No. 583) and Ainslea (No.585) Anniesland Road, Glasgow are notable example of architect designed Arts and Crafts style houses in Scotland, built to a high specification. The carved timber and moulded plaster work, as well as decorative glass are particularly noteworthy.

The exterior and interior form of the houses reference Norman Shaw's influence on Arts and Crafts architecture using an overtly English style which is less common in Scotland. The half-timbered walls, tall chimney stacks, overhanging gableheads, steep roofs and inglenooks are features typical of this style and these add to the special interest of the buildings within the context of late 19th century housing.

In accordance with Section 1 (4A) of the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 the following are excluded from the listing: detached garage to the east of Sherwood (No. 583) and outbuildings to southwest of Ainslea (No. 585).

Age and Rarity

Sherwood and Ainslea were built as a pair of symmetrical semi-detached houses in the Arts and Crafts style. They were designed by the Glasgow architect Malcolm Stark (1854-1935), with Ainslea being his own home. From the 1886-87 and 1887-88 Post Office Directories of Glasgow it is known that Sherwood and Ainslea were likely to have been constructed between 1886 and 1887. A date stone on the west facing canted window of Ainslea suggests that the property was extended by Stark in 1891.

The houses are situated on Anniesland Road in Scotstounhill, to the west of Glasgow. The 1st Edition Ordnance Survey map (surveyed in 1857) shows the area of Scotstounhill as being open countryside interspersed with small farms. Sherwood and Ainslea, along with a dozen other similar size houses in Scotstounhill, are first shown on the 2nd Edition Ordnance Survey map (revised in 1894). From this it can be seen that the external footprint of Sherwood and Ainslea is largely unchanged since that date.

Anniesland and Sherwood were constructed around the same time as the nearby Scotstounhill Railway Station which opened in 1887, demonstrating the expansion of suburban Glasgow in the late 19th century.

The origins of the Arts and Crafts movement date to the 1860s, when exponents such as William Morris (1834-1896) reacted against industrialisation and advocated a return to traditional craftsmanship. In architectural terms this translated into using traditional building skills and local materials with an emphasis on detailed craftsmanship and a more informal approach to planning interior spaces. In Scotland, the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement can be seen in many suburban villas of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The design and construction of Sherwood and Ainslea also takes inspiration from the architectural style of 'Old English' architecture developed by Norman Shaw (1831-1912) in England, which went on to heavily influence the Arts and Crafts movement. Shaw's architecture incorporated English rural traditional techniques such as tile-hung or half-timbered walls, tall chimney stacks, inglenooks, steep roofs, and mullioned windows with leaded lights.

The listing criteria states that 'buildings put up between 1840 and 1945 which are of special architectural or historic interest and of definite character either individually or as part of a group may be listed. These houses are carefully designed in the then fashionable Arts and Crafts style using quality materials throughout the interior and exterior. While some changes have been made to the interior, primarily to the kitchens, and rear additions, the buildings largely retain their late 19th century Arts and Crafts character.

A detached garage to the east of Sherwood first appears on the 3rd Edition Ordnance Survey map (revised in 1934). The building is not of special architectural significance in its own right. This building and also other ancillary detached outbuildings to the southwest of Ainslea, which are thought to date to post 1948 are proposed to be excluded from the listing.

Architectural or Historic Interest

Interior

Sherwood and Ainslea retain much of their late 19th century Arts and Crafts decorative schemes. The Arts and Crafts style is seen in the plasterwork, with a decorative sunflower motif cornice to both sitting rooms and a semi-vaulted plaster relief coffered ceiling to both master bedrooms.

Sherwood and Ainslea's timber work includes typical Arts and Crafts features, such as staircases with geometric fretwork, vaulted inglenook fireplaces with seating, doors, door frames, presses, window frames, skirting and unique to Ainslea, overmantel, wood panelling and glass conservatory. This craftsman-like approach which is part of the Arts and Crafts aesthetic is also seen in the stained glass windows within the inglenook fireplaces, heraldic shields within the drawing room windows and the single leaded windows flanking the entrance doors.

Plan form

The plan form is broadly rectangular and is typical of semi-detached late 19th century mid-size suburban properties. Inside the rooms are simply arranged around, and directly accessible from, a central hall with a staircase. There is no particular interest in the plan form.

Technological excellence or innovation, material or design quality

The design and construction of Sherwood and Ainslea takes inspiration from the architectural style developed by Norman Shaw, which went on to heavily influence the Arts and Crafts movement. Elements of this style are evident in the exterior of Sherwood and Ainslea and is seen in the half-timbering, steep roofs and tall chimneystacks. This overtly English style is less common in Scotland.

Material and design quality is evident in many aspects, such as the decoratively carved stone hoppers. A historic postcard of the houses at the end of the 19th century, after the 1891 west gable addition was added, shows that the front elevation is externally largely unaltered.

Malcolm Stark was born in Kirkintilloch in 1854, the son of Malcolm Stark, a porter. Stark was apprenticed to William N. Tait of Glasgow in around 1870. On completing his apprenticeship he spent two years as an assistant in several Glasgow offices prior to commencing practice in Glasgow on his own in 1876. The publication of his competition designs for Greenock Municipal Buildings in 1879 established his reputation as an outstanding classical designer, and led to many church commissions for various denominations.

In 1890 Stark took into partnership Fred Rowntree, born in Scarborough in 1860 of a Quaker family with Glasgow connections. Rowntree was one of the first Quaker architects, and was influenced by and closely associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. Together the partnership concentrated on architectural competitions, but with no success, only just missing the commission for Belfast City Hall in 1896. The Dictionary of Scottish Architects records that Stark designed around 12 houses. Sherwood and Ainslea are amongst the only ones to still exist and to have been listed.

Setting

The immediate setting of Sherwood and Ainslea remains unchanged from that depicted on a historic postcard of the houses at the end of the 19th century. The boundary walls, including gatepiers and architectural ironmongery are still in place.

The area surrounding Sherwood and Ainslea retains its suburban character. The close surroundings remain made up of late 19th century mid-size villas of various architectural styles. Sherwood and Ainslea were among the first houses that began to form the Glasgow suburb of Scotstounhill. The suburb has grown considerably since the houses were constructed, with the area now entirely built upon and subsumed into the Glasgow city boundary.

Regional variations

There are no known regional variations.

Close Historical Associations

There are no known associations with a person or event of national importance at present (2017).

Statutory address, Sherwood and Ainslea including boundary walls and gates and excluding garage to east and outbuildings to southwest, 583 and 585 Anniesland Road, Glasgow, category of listing changed from B to C and listed building record revised in 2018. Previously listed as 583 and 585 Anniesland Road, Sherwood and Ainslea with boundary walls and gates.

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