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Bangour Village Hospital, Honeysuckle Cottage

A Category C Listed Building in Ecclesmachan, West Lothian

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Latitude: 55.9188 / 55°55'7"N

Longitude: -3.5502 / 3°33'0"W

OS Eastings: 303213

OS Northings: 670612

OS Grid: NT032706

Mapcode National: GBR 30N0.53

Mapcode Global: WH5RH.FHND

Entry Name: Bangour Village Hospital, Honeysuckle Cottage

Listing Date: 17 May 2012

Category: C

Source: Historic Scotland

Source ID: 400868

Historic Scotland Designation Reference: LB51914

Building Class: Cultural

Location: Ecclesmachan

County: West Lothian

Electoral Ward: Broxburn, Uphall and Winchburgh

Parish: Ecclesmachan

Traditional County: West Lothian

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Hippolyte J Blanc, begun 1898, completed 1906. 2-storey, 3-bay, square-plan detached house situated close to entrance of former colony hospital complex. Concrete render with contrasting red ashlar margins. Deep, stugged sandstone base course with red ashlar cornice, moulded band course; deep overhanging bracketed eaves. Raised cills. Bi- and tri-partite windows. Single-storey, piended roof section to E. Shallow canted 3-light window to ground at E.

S PRINCIPAL (ENTRANCE) ELEVATION: central raised and corniced doorpiece with panelled timber entrance door.

Predominantly multi-pane timber casement windows. Piended roof with central corniced stack to apex. Red roof tiles.

INTERIOR: seen (2011). Original room layout largely extant. Curving staircase with timber banister, balusters and newels. Some decorative timber fire surrounds. 4-panel timber doors.

Statement of Interest

A Group with Bangour Village Hospital Former Administration Block and Wards 1 & 2, Former Memorial Church, Former Nurses' Home, Former Hospital Block with Wards 4, 5 & 6, Former Recreation Hall, Villas 7, 8, 9, & 10 and Villas 18, 19 & 20 and Former Power Station Complex.

Bangour Village Hospital is the best surviving example in Scotland of a psychiatric hospital created in the village system of patient care, a revolutionary concept in the late 19th century. This well-detailed cottage is situated at the entrance to the hospital complex and is one of the first buildings seen on entering the site. Built in a domestic style for the steward of the hospital, the cottage epitomizes the village philosophy that dominates the complex. The cottage is detailed with red margins, a deep base course and deep, overhanging eaves. It was used in the latter stages of the hospital for male patients who were close to moving into the community. The domestic style distinguishes it from the restrained Scots Renaissance style of the other buildings on the complex. It is noted in the architect's article of 1916 (see above) as being the steward's cottage and the first building on the site. It continued as the steward's cottage into the mid 20th century.

Bangour Village Hospital is an outstanding remaining example of a psychiatric hospital built in the village style, and espousing a complete philosophy of care. The buildings of the hospital sit within their original park setting and remain largely externally unaltered.

The village system of patient care, exemplified by the Alt-Scherbitz hospital, near Leipzig in Germany in the 1870s encouraged psychiatric patients to be cared for within their own community setting, where there were few physical restrictions and where village self-sufficiency was encouraged. This was in contrast to the large contemporary asylum buildings. This philosophy had been gradually developing in a number of Scottish institutions, but Bangour saw its apotheosis, specifically in relation to psychiatric patients. Two other hospitals were built in Scotland for psychiatric patients, Kingseat, to the north of Aberdeen (built in 1904) and Dykebar Hospital in Paisley, 1909 (see separate listing). These have not survived as completely as Bangour.

The hospital was built by Hippolyte J Blanc, as a result of a competition begun in 1898 and purposely designed in a restrained style with little elaborate decoration. The Edinburgh Lunacy Board had concluded that a new psychiatric hospital was required to cater for the increasing numbers of patients from Edinburgh. The hospital was opened in 1906. The hospital was designed with central utility buildings in the centre of the site, medical buildings to the E for patients requiring medical supervision and treatment. To the W of the site were villas which could accommodate patients who required less supervision and were able to work at some sort of industry. The complex also included a farm to the NW (not part of current site) and had its own water and electricity systems. The hospital was commissioned by the War Office in WWI when extra temporary structures were erected; most of which were dismantled after the War. although some were retained by the hospital. The patients returned in 1922. The hospital was commissioned again for WWII. At this time many temporary shelters were erected to the NW of the site, which became the basis of the Bangour General Hospital (now demolished). Bangour Village Hospital continued as a psychiatric hospital until 2004.

Hippolyte J Blanc (1844-1917) was an eminent and prolific Edinburgh-based architect who is perhaps best known for his Gothic revival churches. He was also a keen antiquarian and many of his buildings evoke an earlier historic Scottish style.

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