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Reynolds Farm

A Grade II Listed Building in Cassington, Oxfordshire

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Latitude: 51.7919 / 51°47'30"N

Longitude: -1.341 / 1°20'27"W

OS Eastings: 445547

OS Northings: 210564

OS Grid: SP455105

Mapcode National: GBR 7X3.PS9

Mapcode Global: VHCXL.P7X5

Entry Name: Reynolds Farm

Listing Date: 24 March 2011

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1116881

English Heritage Legacy ID: 511321

Location: Cassington, West Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire, OX29

County: Oxfordshire

District: West Oxfordshire

Civil Parish: Cassington

Built-Up Area: Cassington

Traditional County: Oxfordshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Oxfordshire

Church of England Parish: Cassington

Church of England Diocese: Oxford

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Listing Text


1700/0/10008 WITNEY

Former farmhouse, built on a moated site. The core is a substantial late C16 or C17 house of which the northern bay is likely to be contemporary or slightly later in date. Later C19 alterations and c1900, added north-east wing and porch and associated internal alterations.

MATERIALS: the core of the house is built in limestone rubble with freestone quoins, and is patched or replaced in brick. The upper floor of the south gable wall is rebuilt in brick and rendered; the entire roof has been rebuilt and is clad in red concrete tiles. Circa 1900 wing in red brick in Flemish bond, and at a later date cement rendered, has tile roofs.

PLAN: a three-bay, two-storey range with a prominent centrally-placed, single-bay, three and a half storey gabled wing, which externally resembles a stair bay, which is attached to, and opens into the central bay. It may be slightly later in date than the main range. It and the southern wing are built over a cellar now reached from beneath the gabled bay; blocked stairs rise in the south-west angle of the cellar beneath the main range.

The northernmost bay of the main range is of similar construction but may be of slightly later date; it was subsequently altered internally. Attached to this bay is a single-storey gabled kitchen/scullery wing and a small late C19 conservatory. A large internal stack rises through the house to the north of the projecting, gabled bay. To the south-west of the stack a newel stair survives to first floor level, to the north-east of the stack at first floor level there appears to have been a small closet.

Circa 1900 an entrance hall was created in the north bay of the house and a two-storey wing and porch to the north-east were added to provide a large drawing room and additional bedrooms. The current stairs were installed in the mid-C20.

EXTERIOR: the south face of the southern range, in two storeys and two irregular bays, has, as elsewhere in the house, a first floor C20 timber casement beneath a timber lintel. A continuous timber beam or lintel is exposed at first floor level, interrupted by an inserted C20 door opening. The gable wall has irregularly-placed, two-light-C20 timber casements. On the north elevation is a C19 three-over-six pane ground floor sash window, and at first floor a two-light timber casement and a small closet window of early date.

The single-bay gabled wing is symmetrically treated as the centrepiece of the house, having windows which diminish in scale from ground to upper floors. At ground floor level is a four-light, ovolo-moulded window with later rectangular leaded panes. At lower level is the head of an opening which is blocked by the accumulated ground level. Upper floor windows, as elsewhere in the house are replaced timber casements under chamfered timber lintels, but here they reflect the graduated scale of the original openings; internally the original lintels are visible. The south-facing elevation of the bay has small single-light windows; the cellar ceiling is of very broad planks.

Beneath the eaves of the north wing is a late C17 or early C18 small metal-framed casement window in a moulded internal architrave; it has lozenge-leaded panes and its original catch. The main entrance, in the north-facing gable wall, has a framed plank door in a simple moulded architrave with a chamfered lintel and beneath a deep moulded canopy. It is flanked by a six-over-six pane sash in a flush stone surround and keystone. The upper floors each have a single timber casement. The c1900 wing has two-over-two paned horned sashes, on the ground floor beneath segmental arches, and a gable end brick stack.

INTERIOR: the principal ground floor room, which, unusually, includes the single, gabled bay, has a large basket-headed-arched, chamfered stone fireplace. To the left is a small bread oven. This wing, which is divided into two rooms of unequal size, has a substantial ceiling, in two equal bays, with a chamfered spine beam and joists with moulded chamfer stops. The ovolo-moulded window, which has been repaired internally, has evidence of the original saddle bars. The sash window on the north-east wall has panelled linings and shutters. The stair is now enclosed at lower level and disused; it has a chamfered newel post which is visible at first floor level where some of the steps also survive, leading to a chamfered door head which opens to the first floor corridor.

On the first floor the principal chamber has a moulded stone chimneypiece in C16 manner and a chamfered spine beam. To the right of the fireplace is a blocked doorway, probably giving on to a small closet. Rooms at the southern end of this wing were altered when the south gable was rebuilt. Although the roof has been replaced, at attic level internal lath and plaster walls remain in situ. The northern wing has been altered internally but has a slender, and therefore slightly later, ground floor chamfered spine beam, and at first floor level a more robust chamfered spine beam and broad plank floors.

The entrance hall has an early to mid-C20 timber chimneypiece with a bracketted mantelshelf, and a vertically boarded dado, which was cut through, probably when the stairs were altered. The mid-C20 stairs rise opposite the entrance, dividing to serve the original house and c1900 wings, and have square newels and turned balusters. The single-storey kitchen/scullery wing has a late C19 or early C20 fireplace. Doors throughout range from probably C17 or C18 plank doors with strap hinges and latches, such as the stair to the attic, to later C19 replicas and C20 four panel doors.

The c1900 wing has an early C20 classically inspired timber chimneypiece and grate with tiled slips, moulded cornices and skirtings and four- panel doors. Windows have panelled linings and shutters. At first floor is a moulded timber fireplace.

Reynolds Farmhouse is built on a large moated site to the south-east of Cassington Church. It has also been known as Moat Farm. It appears to date from the late C16 or C17, was altered during the C19, while the north-east wing and porch were added c1900 when other alterations were made to the house. The moated site has not been excavated but has been recorded during a field survey. The island (c 60 x 40m) is surrounded by a ditch on three sides which is in places up to 30m wide. The waterfilled moat is visible on three sides where it is c 2m wide and c1m deep. The outer bank is stonefaced. A mound, thought to represent the footings of the former manor house, and lying c 20m east of Reynolds Farmhouse was also noted. The site is currently not a scheduled monument but is included in the Oxfordshire HER (PRN 3763).To the south are three former fishponds and fish stews (PRN 991) surviving as earthworks, c 80 x25m and 25 x 5m in area. Outside the moat and approximately 30m north-west of the Reynolds Farmhouse is a rectangular dovecote, probably C17 in date and listed Grade II and a later, probably C19, small barn or cart shed.

Cassington Conservation Area Appraisal (1992)
Oxfordshire HER, www.oxfordshire.gov.uk/oxfordshirestudies accessed 1 Feb 2011

Reynolds Farmhouse, Cassington, a late C16 or C17 house on a moated site, altered and extended in the later C19 and c1900, is designated Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* Architectural interest: a substantial C16/C17 house where a vernacular building is enhanced with polite architectural detail, and altered and extended in the later C19 and early C20;
* Plan: traditional three-bay house plan, with the stair behind the stack and with a prominent gabled window bay added to the central bay;
* Fixtures and fittings: include early ovolo-moulded and metal casement windows and moulded stone chimneypieces;
* Historic interest: substantial post-medieval house built on a large medieval moated site close to the village centre and church.

This text is from the original listing, and may not necessarily reflect the current setting of the building.

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