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Monument to Charles Fleetwood, South Enclosure

A Grade II Listed Building in Islington, London

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Coordinates

Latitude: 51.5233 / 51°31'23"N

Longitude: -0.0879 / 0°5'16"W

OS Eastings: 532750

OS Northings: 182215

OS Grid: TQ327822

Mapcode National: GBR S8.D4

Mapcode Global: VHGQT.FZD4

Entry Name: Monument to Charles Fleetwood, South Enclosure

Listing Date: 21 February 2011

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1396553

English Heritage Legacy ID: 508638

Location: Islington, London, EC1Y

County: London

District: Islington

Electoral Ward/Division: Bunhill

Built-Up Area: Islington

Traditional County: Middlesex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Greater London

Church of England Parish: St Giles Cripplegate

Church of England Diocese: London

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Listing Text


635-1/0/10269 BUNHILL FIELDS BURIAL GROUND
21-FEB-11 Monument to Charles Fleetwood, South e
nclosure

GV II
Chest tomb of Charles Fleetwood, late C17

LOCATION: 532749.9, 182214.8

MATERIALS: Portland stone

DESCRIPTION: The monument takes the form of a rectangular stone chest with a moulded top and base. The corner balusters bear floral and foliate ornament, and the end panels are carved with cherubs' heads, skulls and scrollwork. The sides of the tomb have fielded inscription panels, their text now illegible.

HISTORY: Charles Fleetwood (c.1618-1692) was a Parliamentary soldier and statesman, and one of Oliver Cromwell's closest lieutenants. Born in Northamptonshire and trained as a lawyer at Gray's Inn, he joined the Parliamentary side at the start of the Civil War, fighting at the battles of Newbury and Naseby. He rose swiftly through the ranks to become commander-in-chief of the Parliamentary forces, helping to secure Oliver Cromwell's ultimate victory at the battle of Worcester in 1651. The following year, having married Cromwell's daughter (and Henry Ireton's widow) Bridget, he was despatched to Ireland to put an end to the Catholic resistance there. His later career in government failed to match the distinction of his military achievements. As Lord Deputy of Ireland he was responsible for implementing the punitive terms of the 1652 Act of Settlement, including the mass confiscation of Catholic-held land and its reallocation to Protestant ex-soldiers and colonists, but his indecisiveness encouraged dissent within Parliamentary ranks and he was effectively replaced by Cromwell's son Henry in 1655. In the chaotic closing months of the Republic he attempted, without success, to play off the conflicting interests of Parliament, the army and the resurgent Royalist cause. He avoided execution following the Restoration in 1660, but was forbidden from holding further public office, and lived privately for the last thirty years of his life in Stoke Newington.

Bunhill Fields was first enclosed as a burial ground in 1665. Thanks to its location just outside the City boundary, and its independence from any Established place of worship, it became London's principal Nonconformist cemetery, the burial place of John Bunyan, Daniel Defoe, William Blake and other leading religious and intellectual figures. It was closed for burials in 1853, laid out as a public park in 1867, and re-landscaped following war damage by Bridgewater and Shepheard in 1964-5.

SOURCES: Corporation of London, A History of the Bunhill Fields Burial Ground (1902).
A W Light, Bunhill Fields (London, 1915).
Toby Barnard, entry on Fleetwood in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, www.oxforddnb.com (retrieved on 9 June 2009).

REASONS FOR DESIGNATION: The monument to Charles Fleetwood is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* It commemorates one of the leading Parliamentary generals of the English Civil War who was also one of the chief administrators of Cromwell's settlement policies in Ireland.
* It is a late-C17 chest tomb bearing elaborate carved ornament.
* It is located within the Grade I registered Bunhill Fields Burial Ground (q.v.), and has group value with the other listed tombs in the south enclosure.

This text is from the original listing, and may not necessarily reflect the current setting of the building.

Description


635-1/0/10269 BUNHILL FIELDS BURIAL GROUND
21-FEB-11 Monument to Charles Fleetwood, South e
nclosure

GV II
Chest tomb of Charles Fleetwood, late C17

LOCATION: 532749.9, 182214.8

MATERIALS: Portland stone

DESCRIPTION: The monument takes the form of a rectangular stone chest with a moulded top and base. The corner balusters bear floral and foliate ornament, and the end panels are carved with cherubs' heads, skulls and scrollwork. The sides of the tomb have fielded inscription panels, their text now illegible.

HISTORY: Charles Fleetwood (c.1618-1692) was a Parliamentary soldier and statesman, and one of Oliver Cromwell's closest lieutenants. Born in Northamptonshire and trained as a lawyer at Gray's Inn, he joined the Parliamentary side at the start of the Civil War, fighting at the battles of Newbury and Naseby. He rose swiftly through the ranks to become commander-in-chief of the Parliamentary forces, helping to secure Oliver Cromwell's ultimate victory at the battle of Worcester in 1651. The following year, having married Cromwell's daughter (and Henry Ireton's widow) Bridget, he was despatched to Ireland to put an end to the Catholic resistance there. His later career in government failed to match the distinction of his military achievements. As Lord Deputy of Ireland he was responsible for implementing the punitive terms of the 1652 Act of Settlement, including the mass confiscation of Catholic-held land and its reallocation to Protestant ex-soldiers and colonists, but his indecisiveness encouraged dissent within Parliamentary ranks and he was effectively replaced by Cromwell's son Henry in 1655. In the chaotic closing months of the Republic he attempted, without success, to play off the conflicting interests of Parliament, the army and the resurgent Royalist cause. He avoided execution following the Restoration in 1660, but was forbidden from holding further public office, and lived privately for the last thirty years of his life in Stoke Newington.

Bunhill Fields was first enclosed as a burial ground in 1665. Thanks to its location just outside the City boundary, and its independence from any Established place of worship, it became London's principal Nonconformist cemetery, the burial place of John Bunyan, Daniel Defoe, William Blake and other leading religious and intellectual figures. It was closed for burials in 1853, laid out as a public park in 1867, and re-landscaped following war damage by Bridgewater and Shepheard in 1964-5.

SOURCES: Corporation of London, A History of the Bunhill Fields Burial Ground (1902).
A W Light, Bunhill Fields (London, 1915).
Toby Barnard, entry on Fleetwood in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, www.oxforddnb.com (retrieved on 9 June 2009).

REASONS FOR DESIGNATION: The monument to Charles Fleetwood is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* It commemorates one of the leading Parliamentary generals of the English Civil War who was also one of the chief administrators of Cromwell's settlement policies in Ireland.
* It is a late-C17 chest tomb bearing elaborate carved ornament.
* It is located within the Grade I registered Bunhill Fields Burial Ground (q.v.), and has group value with the other listed tombs in the south enclosure.

Reasons for Listing

The monument to Charles Fleetwood is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:
* It commemorates one of the leading Parliamentary generals of the English Civil War who was also one of the chief administrators of Cromwell's settlement policies in Ireland.
* It is a late-C17 chest tomb bearing elaborate carved ornament.
* It is located within the Grade I registered Bunhill Fields Burial Ground (q.v.), and has group value with the other listed tombs in the south enclosure.

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