History in Structure

1 Carlton Terrace Including Railings and Boundary Walls

A Category A Listed Building in Edinburgh, Edinburgh

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Latitude: 55.9564 / 55°57'22"N

Longitude: -3.1736 / 3°10'24"W

OS Eastings: 326820

OS Northings: 674326

OS Grid: NT268743

Mapcode National: GBR 8SD.N9

Mapcode Global: WH6SM.7K04

Plus Code: 9C7RXR4G+GH

Entry Name: 1 Carlton Terrace Including Railings and Boundary Walls

Listing Date: 16 December 1965

Category: A

Source: Historic Scotland

Source ID: 366386

Historic Scotland Designation Reference: LB28460

Building Class: Cultural

ID on this website: 200366386

Location: Edinburgh

County: Edinburgh

Town: Edinburgh

Electoral Ward: City Centre

Traditional County: Midlothian

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William Playfair, designed 1821-1825, built from late 1820s-mid 1830s. Part of long hairpin-curved terrace of 19 classical town houses; Nos 1-4 and 14-19, rectangular-plan houses with straight 3-bay front elevations; Nos 5-13, wedge-plan houses with curved 4-bay front elevations; predominantly 2-storey and basement with balustraded parapet; panelled parapets to Nos 1, 14 and 17. Droved ashlar to basements; polished ashlar to upper floors; predominantly coursed squared rubble with droved margins to side and rear elevations. Base course to basements; dividing band between basement and ground floors and ground and 1st floors; modillioned eaves cornice to front elevations, eaves band to rear elevations. Raised door surrounds with consoled cornices. Regular fenestration; architraved and corniced windows with panelled aprons to ground floor; architraved windows with cast-iron balconnettes to 1st floor.

SE (PRINCIPAL) ELEVATION: to basement, timber-panelled door with 3-light fanlight to centre, window to left, area beneath platt to right blocked with wall and window. To ground floor to right bay, platt overarching basement recess leading to 2-leaf timber-panelled door with triple-circle glazed fanlight. To 1st floor, flag pole between centre and right bays. Sunken panelled parapet above eaves cornice.

SW (SIDE) ELEVATION: 3-bay, 3-storey elevation. Window to left to ground floor; window to centre to 1st floor; cornice returning from SW elevation to right between 1st and 2nd floors; windows to centre and right to 2nd floor.

NW (REAR) ELEVATION: 2-bay elevation.

RAILINGS AND BOUNDARY WALLS: to front, edging basement recess and platt, stone coping surmounted by cast-iron railings with dog bars, spear-head finials and distinctive circled border; wrought iron lamp standard to left of platt. To rear, forming boundary of garden, random rubble walls with predominantly flat coping; timber-boarded door to SW wall.

GLAZING etc: predominantly 12-pane glazing; 15-pane glazing to 1st floor to principal elevation; glazing in timber sash and case windows. Double-pitched roof with central valley; graded grey slate; stone skews and skewputts. To SW elevation, ashlar wall-head stack to left, ashlar wall-head stack with canted front to right; to NE, 2 rendered ridge stacks; all stacks corniced with circular cans.

INTERIOR: to ground floor: to entrance lobby, screen of 2 Roman Doric columns in antae to far end, compartmented ceiling, good plasterwork; to former dining room, classical black stone chimneypiece, corniced and pilastered doorpieces, good plasterwork cornice and ceiling rose; to rear room (W), good plasterwork cornice. To 1st floor: to former drawing room, classical grey marble chimneypiece with ornate register grate, corniced and pilastered doorpiece, good plasterwork cornice and ceiling rose; rear room (W), classical white marble chimneypiece, good plasterwork. To 2nd floor, some simple cornicing and painted stone chimneypieces. To stair and stair hall: oval cupola above stair well in compartmented ceiling with good plasterwork; stone stairs with cast-iron balusters; wrought iron lamp brackets to 1st and 2nd floors, cast-iron tray rest to 1st floor; good plasterwork to landings and stair hall.

Statement of Interest

Part of the Calton A-Group.

Carlton Terrace forms part of the showpiece of Playfair's Eastern New Town (or Calton) scheme, and as such is an important example of the work of one of Scotland's leading early 19th century architects. Playfair was one of the major driving forces of the Greek Revival in Edinburgh at this time, and his public commissions such as the National Monument, the Royal Institution and the National Gallery (see separate listings) gave strength to Edinburgh's reputation as the Athens of the North. The Calton Scheme was one of his few domestic commissions, and the variety of designs, different for each street, demonstrates Playfair's expertise with the Grecian style and his characteristic punctilious attention to detail. The railings are important as their design features distinctive elements which Playfair repeated in large areas of the Calton scheme.

The origins of the Eastern New Town, which was to occupy the east end of Calton Hill and lands to the north of it on the ground between Easter Road and Leith Walk, lie in a 'joint plan for building' which three principal feuars (Heriot's Hospital, Trinity Hospital and Mr Allan of Hillside) entered into in 1811. In 1812 a competition was advertised for plans for laying out the grounds in question. Thirty-two plans were received, displayed and reported on by a variety of people, including eight architects. Eventually, it was decided that none of the plans was suitable. However, it was a more general report by William Stark (who died shortly after submitting it) which caught the attention of the Commissioners and formed the basis of the final scheme. Stark's central argument stressed the importance of planning around the natural contours and features of the land rather than imposing formal, symmetrical street plans upon it. After several years of little or no progress, in 1818 the Commissioners finally selected William Henry Playfair, Stark's former pupil, to plan a scheme following his master's Picturesque ideals.

The resulting scheme, presented to the Commissioners in 1819, preserved the view of and from Calton Hill by the creation of a limited triangular development of the three single-sided terraces (to make the most of the spectacular views), Royal, Regent and Carlton (originally known as Carlton Place, named after the Prince Regent's Carlton House in London), on the hill itself. These looked over a huge radial street pattern, centred on the gardens of Hillside Crescent, on the land to the north. The feuing of these lower lands started well, with Elm Row, Leopold Place, Windsor Street and the west side of Hillside Crescent being built fairly swiftly. Carlton Terrace was marked out in plots in 1826, and building began slowly the following year; the majority of houses were not complete until the 1830s. Meanwhile, demand for the feus in other streets of the scheme faltered severely, due to the growing popularity of new properties being built to the west of the New Town. This had a particularly bad effect on Royal Terrace, where construction stopped for 20 years, leaving 2 large gaps in the Terrace and a further 3 unbuilt feus to the west end. The fate of the whole Calton scheme was sealed in 1838, when it was decided that feuars should pay poor-rates to both Edinburgh and Leith.. This virtually halted development for the next thirty years. The result of all these problems was that very little of Playfair's original scheme was ever built. When building resumed in the 1880s, some of Playfair's original street lines were adhered to, as was the case with Hillside Crescent, and in others such as Brunton Place, Brunswick Street, Hillside Street (originally to be a longer street called Hopeton Street), and Wellington Street (also curtailed). However, due to piecemeal residential, industrial and transport developments immediately to the north, it would have been impossible to further follow Playfair's original layout, even if this had been considered desirable.

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