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Parys Mountain Windmill

A Grade II Listed Building in Amlwch, Isle of Anglesey

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.3884 / 53°23'18"N

Longitude: -4.3425 / 4°20'32"W

OS Eastings: 244316

OS Northings: 390513

OS Grid: SH443905

Mapcode National: GBR HMNR.1MQ

Mapcode Global: WH427.83D5

Entry Name: Parys Mountain Windmill

Listing Date: 25 October 1951

Last Amended: 12 December 2000

Grade: II

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 5425

Building Class: Industrial

Location: In an isolated location, set back from the SE side of the B5111 running S out of Amlwch. The windmill is located close to the highest point of Parys Mountain, to NE of the remains of the Parys Mines.

County: Isle of Anglesey

Community: Amlwch

Community: Amlwch

Locality: Parys Mountain

Traditional County: Anglesey

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Amlwch

History

Late C19 industrial windmill tower, built by Captain Hughes in 1878 to supplement power from the nearby steam engine operating a mine pump which pumped out water, raised ore and transported miners in the nearby Cairn's shaft. The windmill appears to have operated successfully and was still in use at the turn of the century (as reported in a mining treatise of 1901). Ceased operating in 1904 with the closure of the mine. Copper ore had been extracted from Parys Mountain from the Bronze Age onwards, although operations before the late C18 were small-scale and piecemeal. In 1768 a rich deposit of copper ore was discovered, and the two opencast mines of Parys and Mona became the largest producers of copper in the world, with over 3000 tons(3048 tonnes) of copper produced annually between 1773 and 1785. Production levels had peaked by 1800, after which time production fluctuated. The underground workings were expanded after 1811, under the direction of Cornish mine captains. There was a brief boom in the early 1830s, but by the end of the century less than 500 tons(508 tonnes) was being raised annually. By 1904 the mines had closed, due to the competition from cheaper copper imported from America and Africa. The total production of copper from the area during the period between 1768 and 1904 has been estimated at 3.5 million tons(3.6 million tonnes) of ore, from which 130,000 tons(132,080 tonnes) of copper metal was recovered.

Exterior

Late C19 tapering circular windmill tower; 3 storeys, with opposing doorways to ground floor and single windows to upper storeys. Built of rubble masonry with cambered brick heads to most openings. The tower is almost complete though with some damage to the top of the tower structure and holes at ground to first floor level.

Interior

No machinery remains.

Reasons for Listing

Listed as a complete windmill tower, one of only 18 out of over 40 operating on Anglesey in the mid C19. The windmill at Parys mountain is of particular historic interest as being one of few industrial mills on the island and built as part of the industrial copper mining complex which thrived near Amlwch from mid C19 to early C20; the windmill is also the only mill on the island to have been driven by 5 sails.

Recommended Books

Other nearby listed buildings

  • II Pearl Engine House
    Located in a prominent position on the extreme north-east side of Parys Mountain. Accessed via a minor road leading W off the A5025.
  • II Parc Mawr
    Set back from the NE side of the A5025 on the SE approach to the town of Amlwch; c1.5km SE of the Church of St Eleth.
  • II Capel Bozrah
    At the NW end of the village of Pen-y-Sarn, the chapel is set back from the road at the head of a symmetrically laid-out group including chapel house and school room.
  • II School Room and Store at Capel Bozrah
    At right angles to the chapel, forming the right hand range of a symmetrically planned group of 3 associated buildings.
  • II Railings to yard at Capel Bozrah
    Enclosing the yard in the front of the chapel, running between Ty Capel Bozrah and the school room/store building.
  • II Ty Capel Bozrah
    At right angles to the chapel, forming the left hand range of a symmetrically planned group of 3 associated buildings.
  • II* Ysgol Syr Thomas Jones
    Set back, within private grounds, from the SW side of Ffordd Tanybryn in Pentrefelin.

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