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Cruck Barn at Hendre with attached Cowshed at west

A Grade II Listed Building in Gwyddelwern, Denbighshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 53.0206 / 53°1'14"N

Longitude: -3.3871 / 3°23'13"W

OS Eastings: 307054

OS Northings: 347934

OS Grid: SJ070479

Mapcode National: GBR 6N.FRQS

Mapcode Global: WH77T.YB8P

Entry Name: Cruck Barn at Hendre with attached Cowshed at west

Listing Date: 19 September 2000

Last Amended: 14 February 2001

Grade: II

Source: Cadw

Source ID: 23996

Building Class: Agriculture and Subsistence

Location: In the farmyard of Hendre, 1 km north of Gwyddelwern village.

County: Denbighshire

Town: Corwen

Community: Gwyddelwern

Community: Gwyddelwern

Traditional County: Merionethshire

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History

A threshing barn, probably of the C16. The crucks are of good form and the barn was possibly originally timber framed. The main loss caused by later alteration has been the partial removal of one blade of the north-west frame at head height to create access to the later cowshed range (the construction of which appears to post-date the outline on the Tithe plan, 1840). The north-west bay was also lofted as part of this alteration. The Tithe Survey also indicates an original farm of about 46 acres (18.6ha), though later much increased by amalgamations.

Additional historic interest arises from the preservation of a Pelton waterwheel at the south corner and associated electrical equipment, and a shaft with multiple pulleys suspended beneath the eastern cruck frame for transferring power to farm machinery. This wheel was installed in the late 1920s by Mr Hugh Thomas Parry and drove a generator to supply electricity to the farm and house, Hendre being the first house locally to be so provided. The power was also used to grind feed meal for horses and cattle and to run a sawmill.

Exterior

A barn in local slatey rubble stonework, with a slate roof partly repaired in corrugated sheeting and a tile ridge. Remnants of the large barn door survive at the north-east side (facing the farmyard), and to the right of this opening there is a surviving section of timber framing at loft level, incorporating a pitching door. At the south-west side the corresponding barn door is absent, the stonework showing much sign of alteration. The north-west gable (facing the farmhouse) has slit ventilators and a door. The south-east gable has one slit ventilator and two later windows. To the west side there is a later cowshed, in irregularly coursed gritstone, with slate roof and tile ridge. Hayloft opening above, two doors and two windows below. (Another, earlier, cowshed to the east side, not included, is ruinous; its addition has not materially affected the cruck barn).

Interior

Three bay layout (3.6 m., 4.2 m., 3.6 m., by about 4.6 m wide internally), with central threshing floor. The cruck frames each have blades reaching down to floor level, a tie beam, collar and two vertical struts. The cruck apex is butt-jointed on a vertical line (Alcock's type B) with a small ridge piece. Two purlins each side, the lower ones carried on pieces on the backs of the blades, the feet of these pieces framed into projecting spurs. Purlins roughly scarfed or lapped. Part of one purlin was removed for the addition of cowshed to west, the loft of which also communicates with the barn.

Pulleys, shafting and other equipment associated with the Pelton wheel survive internally.

Reasons for Listing

A fine cruck framed barn forming the basis of a farmyard group, with the additional feature of a Pelton wheel used in the early C20 for electricity generation and for powering farm machinery.

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