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Bridge north-west of the Church of St Mary And All Saints, Trentham Gardens

A Grade II Listed Building in Swynnerton, Staffordshire

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Coordinates

Latitude: 52.9659 / 52°57'57"N

Longitude: -2.2038 / 2°12'13"W

OS Eastings: 386407

OS Northings: 340969

OS Grid: SJ864409

Mapcode National: GBR 14W.1N1

Mapcode Global: WHBD0.3QT4

Entry Name: Bridge north-west of the Church of St Mary And All Saints, Trentham Gardens

Listing Date: 24 January 1967

Last Amended: 6 March 2019

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1190273

English Heritage Legacy ID: 272371

Location: Swynnerton, Stafford, Staffordshire, ST4

County: Staffordshire

District: Stafford

Civil Parish: Swynnerton

Built-Up Area: Stoke-on-Trent

Traditional County: Staffordshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Staffordshire

Church of England Parish: Trentham St Mary and All Saints

Church of England Diocese: Lichfield

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Trentham

Summary


An C18 bridge crossing Park Brook on the Trentham estate as part of the main northern approach to Trentham Hall.

Description

An C18 bridge crossing Park Brook on the Trentham estate as part of the main northern approach to Trentham Hall.

MATERIALS: the bridge is stone with a wrought iron standard surmounting each parapet.

DESCRIPTION: the bridge is a single span with a rusticated segmental arch. A broad band sits above the keystone of the arch and extends across the abutments. The parapet on each side is solid, has curving coping stones and has a rectangular pier at the centre, topped with a wrought iron standard. The abutments terminate and join the bridge with circular piers topped with shallow domes.

History

Trentham Hall and gardens were established on the site of an Augustinian priory in the C16. The property was bought by wool merchant James Leveson in 1540 after the dissolution of the priory. Over the following 360 years under the Leveson-Gower family ownership, the house and grounds were redesigned multiple times. A new mansion was built for Sir Richard Leveson in 1630-1639 and walled gardens created. The park was remodelled in the 1690s for Sir John Leveson-Gower, and a pair of canals cut c1695 to Rev George Plaxton’s plan. In 1707 the hall was redesigned by William Smith of Warwick. The 2nd Baron Gower commissioned Charles Bridgeman to extend and improve the land in 1720 including enclosing Kings Wood, constructing a brick wall around the park and creating a patte d’oie the west of the house, some of which remains. Trentham Hall was remodelled again in 1737-38 by Francis Smith of Warwick. A further overhaul of the landscaping was undertaken in the mid-eighteenth century by removing the walk between the two canals to create a lake. The shape of the lake was naturalised and planting added to the bank by Lancelot Brown between 1759 and 1780. At this time, the hall was redesigned by Henry Holland. Charles Heathcote Tatham designed the mausoleum on Stone Road in 1808 and added east and west wings to the south front of the hall; his orangery survives at the south-west of the remains of the hall.

Another large transformation of both house and grounds took place in the early-nineteenth century under the commission of the 2nd Duke of Sutherland and his wife, Harriet (née Howard). In 1834-1842, Charles Barry redesigned the hall, rebuilding Tatham’s dining room, adding a Belevdere tower over the old kitchen, and building an orangery, sculpture gallery and clock tower. Barry went on to rebuild the stables and service quarters in 1840-49. The design of the Italianate formal gardens is also attributed to Barry, formed of two shallow terraces leading down to the lake with parterres and balustrading, statues, urns, pavilions and fountains as features. Planting would have been led by the head gardeners at Trentham, including George Fleming from 1841 and later Zadok Stevens. The gardens were showcases of innovative Victorian planting and use of colour under Fleming’s management.

Trentham Hall was demolished in about 1911 but remains of its entrance and conservatory, orangery and sculpture gallery and stable block survive. The entrance lodges to Trentham Gardens were relocated from the west entrance of the hall to their present site opposite the mausoleum in the 1920s. This was to be the main entrance for Trentham Gardens in their use as public pleasure grounds. The various structures built for entertainment in the C20, such as the tennis courts, ballroom and open-air swimming pool have since been demolished. In the early C21, the flower garden on the upper terrace was historically recreated and the parterre garden to the south was redesigned as a modern scheme by Tom Stuart-Smith and Piet Oudolf, being completed in 2004.

The bridge, constructed in the C18, was part of the main approach to Trentham Hall from the north.

Reasons for Listing

The Bridge north-west of the Church of St Mary and All Saints at Trentham Gardens is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

Architectural interest:

* for its interest as an C18 ornamental bridge which formed part of the northern approach to Trentham Hall, designed to be seen as well as to carry traffic.

Historic interest:

* for its association with the development of the Trentham Estate and the Dukes of Sutherland.

Group Value:

* with the Grade II*-Registered Trentham Gardens, and other listed buildings within the estate.

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