History in Structure

Warley Hospital, Main Block, Administrative Buildings with Attached Ward Wings

A Grade II Listed Building in Warley, Essex

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Latitude: 51.6068 / 51°36'24"N

Longitude: 0.293 / 0°17'34"E

OS Eastings: 558881

OS Northings: 192259

OS Grid: TQ588922

Mapcode National: GBR XP.DJN

Mapcode Global: VHHN3.1W74

Plus Code: 9F32J74V+P5

Entry Name: Warley Hospital, Main Block, Administrative Buildings with Attached Ward Wings

Listing Date: 20 February 1976

Last Amended: 9 December 1994

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1208288

English Heritage Legacy ID: 373567

ID on this website: 101208288

Location: Warley, Brentwood, Essex, CM14

County: Essex

District: Brentwood

Electoral Ward/Division: Warley

Parish: Non Civil Parish

Built-Up Area: Brentwood

Traditional County: Essex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Essex

Church of England Parish: Warley Christ Church

Church of England Diocese: Chelmsford

Tagged with: Architectural structure

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723-1/8/151 (West side)
20/02/76 Warley Hospital, main block,
administrative buildings with
attached ward wings
(Formerly Listed as:
Warley Hospital (Central block and
wings to the north and south only))


Hospital for the mentally ill. Foundation stone dated 1851,
continuous building phases over 45 years. Architect HE Kendall
and RR Pope. Red brick with stone dressings, roofs of red
machine-made tile. Tudor style. Burnt brick diaper decoration,
labels with head and leaf stops over doors and mullioned and
transomed windows. Many windows have depressed 4-centred
arched heads and ward windows are commonly fitted with metal
casements of a 5 and 3 pane system. Plan (1) Central deep
block facing E (2) attached symmetrical ward wings creating
open fronted courts facing E, each side to N and S. Second
parallel attached ward range to W creating narrow inner court
with symmetrical wings off at N to (3) N and (4) W, at S to
(3) S and (4) W. Also (5) axial wing to W as first floor
chapel with hall below.
EXTERIOR: (1) E front, principal facade, symmetrical 2
storeyed, 9 bays, frontage broken forward twice, 1:2:3:2:1
system, with diagonal corner buttresses and embattled parapet.
Centre 3 bays made asymmetrical with tower to S and 2 facade
gables to N. Ground floor divided into 4 bays, 2 outer have
two-centred arched window, inner 2 bays have doorways with
two-centred heads. Doorways divided by a central buttress,
rising to a corbelled oriel window of 4 lights in the centre
bay above. Tower of 5 stages with heavy clasping buttress at
SE corner with foundation stone. Large first floor window of
4-lights. Gabled niche above with cusped head, above, 2
rectangular narrow 2-light traceried windows. Clock under
gable and diagonally set gabled bell-cote on parapet to SE.
Outer symmetrical 3 bays, from centre outward - bays 3 and 7,
ground floor 3-light window, first floor, 2-light window, bays
2 and 8, canted ground floor bay windows of 4 lights through 2
storeys, embattled parapet, facade gable with blind gable
window. Bays 1 and 8, ground floor bay window of 4 lights,
embattled parapet, first floor 3-light window, facade gable
with blind window. N and E end elevations gabled at E with
ground floor 3-light and first floor 2-light window, to W, 2
staggered 2-light windows with doorway (at S end partly
obscured by C20 addition) to W, bay windows through 2 storeys,
3 and 2-light windows. Rear, W elevation of N and S ends,
(partly obscured by later additions), 3 and 4-light windows,
first floor single 2-light and one single light window and
blind gable window.
(2) E facing ward courts, inner elevations. 2 storeys with
symmetrical cross-wing gabled bays breaking forward having
ground and first floor 3-light windows, upper windows have
stepped panelled decoration to their heads. Ground and first
floor windows of the ranges are one and 2-lights alternating,
with 3-light at the E ends. N court considerably obscured by
later additions and has additionally, a projecting E facing
nurses' block of 1900, 3 storeyed, 4 bays with 2 exterior
facade stacks and facade gables, 1:2:1 bays. 2-light windows,
first and second floor with transoms, side fenestration,
irregular and with corridors connecting the block to the
wards. E front elevation partly obscured by C20 additions, 2
gables, major and minor. Ground floor 3-light window, first
floor one 3-light and one 2-light window below minor gable.
Outer faces of E court wings, N and S, gabled cross-wing bay
breaks forward at E end with 4-light ground floor and 3-light
first floor windows. To W end, bay windows of 5 cants to both
storeys, gabled cross-wing behind. 3-light, 2-light and
1-light windows. Centre of block, 3 cant bay window of
2-lights, (S end ground floor obscured by C20 addition).
Windows of ward range of 3-lights. E end, 2-light windows,
blind above transom, also boarded door, 2-centre arched
doorheads. To W, tower with parapet and cornice, ground floor
door with heavy embattled stone hood, first floor, tall
2-light window, 2 transoms, above, blind slit window. Due to
falling ground, N end has additional lower floor to tower with
door and 2 windows. E end of range has similar lower floor.
(3) N and S outer wings, E face, continuous range, decoration
characterised by lack of window transoms, continuous hood
mouldings to ground-floor windows and diamond shaped label
stops. Metal casement windows of 2x5 panes consistently used.
S range, 2 storey, N range 3 storey with lower 2 storeys
identical, projecting cross-wing, gabled bays at each end,
inner one adjacent to tower has 3 single-light ground floor
windows, first floor, 3-light windows with blind stepped head
decoration as on front (E) courts. Outer cross-wing has
4-light ground floor window, first floor similar window but
with blind stepped head decoration. Windows of range
alternate, of 1 and 2-light type. S and N end elevation
similar to E ends of front E courts but with 3 storeys due to
falling ground. Elevations partly obscured by C20 addition. N
and S outer wings, W faces, S 2 storeyed, N 3 storey gabled
cross-wings break forward at each end with 3 and 4 light
windows. Central 3-cant bay windows through all floors with
2-light windows. Stacks (now reduced and capped) between
central bay windows and end cross-wings and another on side of
inner cross-wing range has 2-light window. Doorway at inner
angle with embattled stone hood. Tower to inner angles with
wing to W with doorway, half octagon stair projection above
with slit vent windows. Windows on exposed faces, upper
parapet and cornice. W projection, 2 storeyed, 2 bayed range
and single storeyed 4-bayed range with second bay from E
projecting gabled cross-wing. (N, W projection only the 2
storeyed bay with one bay as gabled cross-wing - 4-light
windows, upper one with blind stepped head decoration, stack
to range on inner face.)
(4) W elevation, N and S courts, each side of axial chapel,
ground floor partly obscured by additions. Gabled projecting
cross-wing adjacent to chapel window - ground floor 4-lights,
first floor 3-lights. Central gabled bay to range with 3-cant
bay windows alternating 2 and 3-light windows along whole
range. Outer cross-wing gabled bay, 4-light windows, upper
with blind stepped head decoration.
(5) First floor chapel (now redundant ward), stone faced,
transepts and aisles, S with lean-to roof, N, 2-storeyed with
flat roof and parapet, also stair tower. Ground floor obscured
by additions. Principal windows 2 centred heads, blind
tympanum, metal casements with glazing bars, 8x8 panes. W end,
12x8 panes. Clerestory on S side, 2-centred traceried blind
INTERIOR: administrative area. Entrance hall, doorways with
segment heads and labels with head stops, also door with 4
centred arch in square moulded frame with fleurons in a deep
cavetto and leaf decorated spandrels. Fireplace - square
embattled surround, cavetto moulded and leaf decoration. 2
angels above holding arms of Essex in gabled niche, fire
opening - 4-centred arch with leaf decoration in spandrels and
outer dougle ogee moulding. Ceiling with moulded joists on
corbels with leaf, flower and angle decoration. Stair to
committee room, in stair-well, of perpendicular style, newel
posts with double ogee moulded chamfers, shaped stops, shaped
newel finial, grid of blind tracery over side boarding with
leaf decorated spandrels, balusters of square section, twisted
wrought-iron. Rear stair of similar style but simpler. Chapel
interior, leaf and angel decorated corbels, labels with head
HISTORICAL NOTE: the hospital was built as a Pauper Lunatic
Asylum as a consequence of the 1845 Lunatic Asylum Act
requiring all counties to make this provision. In 1849, 86
acres of the Brentwood Hall Estate was bought. The site was
difficult to develop due to the land gradients and quicksands
in the sub-soil. The original design for 300 patients was a
totally symmetrical plan of both buildings and gardens and
this is clearly seen in the main block, even though over
crowding required an accommodation of 450 and even this was a
gross underestimate requiring additional building in 1863,
1870, 1888, 1897 and 1936. The style of the original building
was described as `medieval, of the Tudor period ----- being
substantial, cheerful, English in character ----- and not too
expensive'. Information compiled by Mr T Neary, General
Warley Hospital, Tower House (qv) and The Lodge (qv) form a

Listing NGR: TQ5888192259

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