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Thorndon Hall

A Grade I Listed Building in Herongate and Ingrave, Essex

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Latitude: 51.602 / 51°36'7"N

Longitude: 0.3335 / 0°20'0"E

OS Eastings: 561705

OS Northings: 191818

OS Grid: TQ617918

Mapcode National: GBR YJ.QRV

Mapcode Global: VHHN3.QZPS

Plus Code: 9F32J82M+QC

Entry Name: Thorndon Hall

Listing Date: 21 October 1958

Last Amended: 9 December 1994

Grade: I

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1297212

English Heritage Legacy ID: 373560

Location: Thorndon Hall, Brentwood, Essex, CM13

County: Essex

District: Brentwood

Civil Parish: Herongate and Ingrave

Traditional County: Essex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): Essex

Church of England Parish: Ingrave St Nicholas

Church of England Diocese: Chelmsford

Tagged with: House

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723-1/9/311 Thorndon Hall
(Formerly Listed as:
Thorndon Hall including quadrant and


Large country house, now 84 apartments. 1764-70, converted
1980. By James Paine. For Lord Petre. Stock brick with stone
dressings and slate roofs. Plan - rectangular centre block
with quadrant wings to rectangular pavilion blocks, total
length of facade 185m. The composition unites a long,
centrally porticoed Palladian palace with outer pavilions of
the increasingly fashionable villa (1:3:1) style. Centre and W
end burnt out in 1878 and rest allowed to decay until
conversion of whole complex, including stables.
EXTERIOR: N, principal facade, centre block of 11 bays has
centre and end bays breaking forward, 1-3-3-3-1, rusticated
podium, first floor piano nobile and second floor (originally
3 storeys). Narrow sunk panels in between first and second
floors in central and adjacent 3 bays of each side now opened
up as windows to make 4 storeys. Single bay ends have no sunk
panels and are of 3 storeys, balustraded cornice parapet at
each side of central pedimented 3 bays. All windows have
sashes with glazing bars. Ground floor, windows of 3x3 panes,
central doorway has Tuscan columns, triglyph frieze and
cornice but now blocked and containing similar window to rest.
Between ground and first floor, a contrasting chamfered string
course. Piano nobile windows all 3x5 panes and with balustered
aprons. Outer bays (1 and 11) have sunk Ionic Venetian
surrounds, bays 3 and 9 have pediments, bays 2,3,4,8,9 and 10
have moulded architraves and the centre bay (6) a sunk round
headed recess and Ionic attached columns. Sunk panels are now
windows, plain 3x2 panes. Original second floor windows
moulded architraves, 3x3 panes. Rear S garden elevation,
similar but more dramatic with end bays broken forward and
central 5 bays having a deep hexastyle Corinthian portico with
round headed loggia openings in the podium. The five central
windows of the piano nobile are round headed with 3x6 panes
and radiating glazing bars in the heads. The central window is
combined with an 8-panelled 2-leaf door. Windows of bays 1 and
11 in sunk, round headed panels and with moulded architraves
and segmental pediments. Windows of bays 2,3 9 and 10 have
simple cornice heads. Sunk panels in between first and second
floors in bays 2 to 9 now glazed as on front elevation.
Central block E elevation continues systems of front and back
with balustraded cornice parapet but plain podium defined by
string course. 5 storeys, 6 bays, all windows 3x3 panes except
on third floor which are 3x2 panes. 3rd bay from N has
projecting porch with Tuscan columns and triglyph frieze,
round headed doorway with fanlight, C20 8 panelled 2-leaved
door. W elevation similar but 5 bays and central porch. 2
waterheads dated 1766. Both end elevations have a C20 plain
metal door adjacent to porch.
Quadrant wings: N front, each of 9 bays with rusticated podium
with round arch headed recesses and Ionic trabeate piano
nobile with attached columns on bases and frieze with cornice.
Small attic with cornice parapet and a round headed niche in
each bay. E quadrant, ground floor bay nearest centre, (1) has
passageway, bays 5 and 9 have doorways and rest have round
headed windows, 3x2 panes with radiating glazing bars to
heads. W quadrant similar, bay 1 (nearest centre) has
passageway, bays 4 and 7 doorways, rest as on E quadrant.
Quadrants, S, rear elevation, to W, ground floor rooms with
lean-to roof above to wall (niches to front). All 8 openings
segment headed, central 2 are doorways with doors of 3 panels
with fanlights over, 6 windows, all 3x2 panes. E quadrant 2
storeyed with essentially 9 bays with central 2-bayed
projection (once a chapel). Ground floor openings segment
headed, 3 doors, each with 6 panels and fanlights and 4
windows each 3x2 panes. First floor, 7 simple 3x4 paned
windows. Projecting bow has 3 ground-floor 3x2 paned windows
and first floor large central triple window under depressed
segment headed arch with centre as French window to a balcony,
blind window recess on each side.
E and W pavilions: both, in size and appearance, like large
C18 houses. N front elevation, 3 broad bays, central
pedimented bay breaks forward. Roofs hipped and slated with
chimney-stacks at bay junctions, 3 storey, continuing the
rusticated podium and piano nobile system from centre block
and quadrants. W pavilion is least altered. Ground floor,
central doorway with C20 metal and glass gate, window each
side, 2x2 sashes a similar window in each outer bay. First
floor, central depressed arch headed recess up to second floor
height with principal pedimented widow. Cornice headed window
in bay either side, all three windows have 3x4 panes and
balustraded apron. Second floor has plain windows, 2 outer of
3x2 panes, 2 inner of 2x2 panes and a segment headed 3-light
window high in the depressed arch rising from the first floor.
E pavilion similar to W but now has additional ground floor
rusticated 3-window range projection to E bay with flat
balustraded roof, windows 3x5 panes. Pavilions - inner, side
elevation, continuing rusticated podium and piano nobile
system. 3 floors, 5 bays, roof hips and stacks visible, eaves
cornice. Windows mainly plain except central 3 on first floor
with moulded architraves, 2 with cornice heads, central one
has a pediment. Windows - on ground floor, 3x2 panes, first
floor, 3x4 panes, second floor, 3x2 panes. Pavilion outer side
elevation continue 3 floor system but E pavilion has podium
rusticated while W pavilion is in plain brick. 5 bays, all
windows segment headed, ground floor, 3x2 panes, first floor
3x4 panes, second floor 3x2 panes. W pavilion has central
doorway under segment head, 2 panelled units with panelled
door in between. E pavilion has 3 doorways, each with a
2-leaved 8-panelled door, central door has a cornice hood.
INTERIOR now completely altered with central void open to sky
in central block. Apartments ranged around with central open
stair and corridor access. Pavilions have central, full
height, top lit stair wells and apartments set round on each
floor. Conversion of quadrant wings similar, each apartment
occupying 4 bays. Original chapel in E quadrant survived in a
ruined state but now an apartment.
James Paine, the architect, working between 1735 and 1770 was
`unquestionably the leading house architect in the country ---
till Mr Robert Adam entered the lists'.
(Summerson J: Architecture in Britain 1530-1830: 219-220).

Listing NGR: TQ6170591818

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