History in Structure

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Cadborough Oast

A Grade II Listed Building in Rye, East Sussex

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Coordinates

Latitude: 50.9461 / 50°56'45"N

Longitude: 0.716 / 0°42'57"E

OS Eastings: 590888

OS Northings: 119809

OS Grid: TQ908198

Mapcode National: GBR QXP.MVG

Mapcode Global: FRA D6DL.SY8

Entry Name: Cadborough Oast

Listing Date: 5 September 2018

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1456915

Location: Rye, Rother, East Sussex, TN31

County: East Sussex

District: Rother

Civil Parish: Rye

Built-Up Area: Rye

Traditional County: Sussex

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): East Sussex

Summary

A granary with cartshed below of around 1710-1720, with additions of oast kiln and stowage of early to mid-C19, converted into a residence in about 1995.

Description

A granary with cartshed below of around 1710-1720, with additions of oast kiln and stowage probably of the mid C19, converted into a residence in about 1995.

MATERIALS: the C18 former granary is timber-framed, partly re-fronted in brickwork including English garden wall bond, timber-framed above and partly clad in weatherboarding with a tiled roof half-hipped at the south end. The stowage building is of brick partly in English garden wall bond with a hipped tiled roof and a projecting wooden gable and the hop kiln is of brick in Sussex bond with a cement rendered roof and wooden cowl and fantail. The windows are late C20 wooden casements.

PLAN: a roughly L-shaped complex of two storeys, the former stowage of five bays with a circular hop kiln attached at the south-east end, the former granary is of two bays.

EXTERIOR: the north-west entrance front of the stowage building has three irregularly-spaced openings on the first floor. Until at least the end of the 1920s there was a further hop kiln in the position of the two northern windows. The ground floor has a wide late C20 entrance with wooden ledged and braced doors. The circular hop kiln is linked to the stowage by a section of brown brick in English bond with a gabled wooden projection above. The former hop kiln has inserted casement windows on both floors with cambered heads to the ground floor windows and an inserted ground floor entrance facing south.

The south-west elevation has the gable end of the stowage building on the west side and the early C18 cartshed/granary building set back to the east. Between is a late C19 or early C20 brick staircase in English bond incorporating two large pieces of stone leading up to the first floor of the former granary. The cast iron handrail is late C20, replacing a wooden handrail in the 1925 photograph. Original openings in the granary have been replaced by late C20 wooden casement windows.

The south-east side has the projecting half-hipped end of the former granary. Until at least the end of the 1920s a further circular hop kiln was built up against it. The ground floor has some weathered exposed timbers on the ground floor. The windows and door are late C20 and there is an attached late C20 wood and glazed balcony on the first floor.

The north-east side of the building has the return of the granary/cartshed building at the south end and attached at right angles to the north is the north-west side of the stowage building, both with later C20 windows.

INTERIOR: the former granary ground floor has a central spine beam and retains a square hatch in the ceiling, either for hoisting sacks or gaining access to the upper floor by ladder. The first floor south-east end wall is timber-framed with a midrail and three curved tension braces. The fourth was probably removed probably when a later entrance was inserted. The side walls retain jowled bay posts and the north side has a wall plate with a curved profile jowl. The roof structure has staggered purlins and collars. Sockets in the tie beam of the western truss may indicate that the granary may have had an additional bay originally.

Where visible the roof of the stowage has machine cut rafters, it retains tie beams and there are dragon ties visible at some corners.

History

Cadborough Farmstead, of which Cadborough Oast formed part, has a known history dating back to 1200.

The earliest part of Cadborough Oast is thought to date from 1710 to 1720 and to have been built as a cartshed with granary above. An estate map of 1735 shows the farmhouse and two farm buildings, one of which is in the correct position for this building. A hop token from 1745 shows that the farm had a long association with hops. 'Caresborough Farm' is shown in this position on the 1813-1816 First Edition one inch Ordnance Survey map but at a scale which is difficult to see individual buildings. From 1830 there was a brickwork and pottery at Cadborough Farm with clay used from the farm. The pottery under its manager William Mitchell was the origin of The Rye Pottery. On the 1840 Rye Tithe map a large T-shaped building is shown in this position and on the apportionment schedule the owner is registered as Edward Barrett Curteis and the occupier of the homestall as Jeremiah Smith. Jeremiah Smith was a hop grower and was seven times Mayor of Rye.

An 1866 valuation and full inventory refers to a granary and oast. The 1874 25'' Ordnance Survey sheet shows the building had three circular hop kilns at that date. No change is shown on the on the 1898 Edition. By the 1909 25'' sheet an additional building is shown attached to the north-east. A sketch of 1922 and a photograph of 1925 also show three hop kilns. The 1922 sketch indicates that the building added to the north-east was a single-storey structure, possibly a cartshed or cattle shelter. The 1925 photograph shows that the ground floor of the granary was being used as a stable at that time. On the 1929 25'' OS sheet two of the hop kilns are no longer shown but the north-east extension appears to be still present.

The farmhouse and a barn were destroyed by a V1 rocket in 1944, killing the owner, and the farmhouse was rebuilt on the same footprint. The north-east extension to the oast house has since been demolished. Cadborough Oast, the only complete building surviving from the old farmstead, was converted into a dwelling in about 1995.

Reasons for Listing

Cadborough Oast, an early C18 timber-framed granary with cartshed or stable below with a further brick building added by 1840 and a mid-C19 hop kiln, converted into a residential building in about 1995, is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons:

Architectural interest:

* for the survival of a significant proportion of historic fabric and form, despite the residential conversion of the building, including much of the timber frame and roof of the C18 granary and a mid-C19 hop kiln and stowage.

Historic interest:

* as a group of agricultural buildings which demonstrates the evolution of this steading from the early-C18 granary to the mid-C19 stowage and hop kiln, the latter being an iconic structure within the landscape.

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