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Terrys of York Factory

A Grade II Listed Building in Micklegate, York

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Latitude: 53.9407 / 53°56'26"N

Longitude: -1.0896 / 1°5'22"W

OS Eastings: 459861

OS Northings: 449781

OS Grid: SE598497

Mapcode National: GBR NQTW.X3

Mapcode Global: WHFC9.76DT

Plus Code: 9C5WWWR6+75

Entry Name: Terrys of York Factory

Listing Date: 4 March 2005

Grade: II

Source: Historic England

Source ID: 1391643

English Heritage Legacy ID: 492559

Location: Micklegate, York, YO23

County: York

Electoral Ward/Division: Micklegate

Parish: Non Civil Parish

Built-Up Area: York

Traditional County: Yorkshire

Lieutenancy Area (Ceremonial County): North Yorkshire

Church of England Parish: York St Chad

Church of England Diocese: York

Tagged with: Architectural structure

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Terry's of York Factory


Factory built 1924-30 by J.G Davies and L.E Wade for Terry's of York chocolate manufacturers. Steel framed construction with red brick in English bond with sandstone ashlar dressings and centrepiece, with a concrete and ashlar roof.

Five storeys, 500 ft. long, with entrance front towards central road through site. Central entrance block of ashlar, slightly projecting, flanked by quoin strips of alternating red brick and ashlar sandstone. Double large doors for vehicular access with smaller personal doors to either side separated by Tuscan order columns, with antae to the sides and plain frieze and cornice above. This doorway and a row of small-paned windows above occupy two floors in height. Second and third floors have symmetrically arranged one and two light mullioned and transomed windows with cornices. Vestigial pediment over centre window on second floor. Fourth floor has paired mullion and transom windows in the centre flanked by glazed oculi in keyed ashlar surrounds. To either side the windows on all floors are mullioned and transomed with those on the first floor having cornices and those on the top floor with triple keyed lintels. Slightly projecting bay on either side mid way between centre and end blocks.

End blocks also project and have mullioned and transomed windows flanked by transomed single window, all with cornices, except top floor which has glazed oculus in keyed surround flanked by transomed single lights with keyed lintels. Outside projecting end blocks, a tier of single lights in an ashlar strip to full height and alternating quoin strips on corner. Ashlar parapet is stepped above projecting bays. Left return towards Bishopthorpe Road has single light tiers in ashlar strip as at front flanking projecting bay with same window arrangement as end blocks to front.

Rear is plainer with ranks of metal framed windows with ashlar sills and lintels throughout. At ground level an extension joins the factory to further buildings to the rear which were formerly separate.

Interior: ground floor not fully examined as still in use; entrance leads to hallway with free-standing and engaged pillars. First and remaining floors are now empty. Staircases near each end of building, with toilet facilities on half landings; open spaces within with walls half-tiled with white tiles and black banding. Pillars run down the centre length of each floor, and steel frame construction is visible in boxed beams. To rear of each floor, wooden loading bay doors. Roof houses heating system etc.

PROCESS: Goods were loaded in at the top floor and manufacturing processes cascaded downwards. The blended beans were roasted, cracked and winnowed, then taken to the nibbing machine where the 'nib' of the bean was extracted, this being the part used for chocolate making. The nibs were ground to produce the cocoa mass, at which point other ingedients such as sugar or milk were added as required. The result was a paste which was refined several times. The next process was 'conching' where the mass was stirred for many hours at a constant temperature, to produce a smooth cream. In the enrober department the chocolate was added to the various fillings, and the results were then foiled, packaged and despatched. These processes, once carried out in the facory building, are now more compactly completed in the ground floor of the factory and the 1970 building opposite.

HISTORY: Terry's of York began as a confectionary business owned by Bayldon and Berry in 1767 on a site near Bootham Bar. Joseph Terry, connected by marriage to Berry and trained as an apothecary, joined the firm, which moved in 1824 to St Helen's Square. By 1830 Terry was the sole owner, and gradually developed the chocolate side of the business. New factory premises were built at Clementhorpe in 1862 to provide better transport links, but contined expansion led to a need for the new premises at Bishopthorpe Road.

SUMMARY: this building is one of a group consisting of headquarters offices, factory, clocktower, Time office block and liquor factory, which were all built at the same time. The complex is a strong group in architectural terms, presenting a unified style which reflects the strength and importance of the corporate image of Terry's chocolate firm.

The buildings also have a strong historic interest, representing the most complete surviving expression of the importance of the confectionary business in York, and confirming, on a national scale, York's high status in this business.

SOURCES: Colbeck, Maurice, 'Made in York', 1992, pp. 23-32.
'Terry's of York, 1767-1967', 1967, (Private Publication).
'C. M. W.' Journal of Jos. Rowntree, 1925 (pamphlet).

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